Titanium dioxide is a naturally-occurring substance resulting from the oxidation of the element titanium. Also called titanium IV oxide or titania, it is one of the whitest materials known, and is used in many industries to provide whiteness and opacity to products such as paints, plastics, papers, inks, foods, and cosmetics. It is highly refractory in nature, often used in cosmetics to reflect light away from the skin, or in sun block for the same purpose. Other industries use its refractory nature in protective coatings for automobile and marine parts, and in optical mirrors. Titanium dioxide is also used in building and construction materials.
Due to its many uses, titanium dioxide is one of the most-produced chemicals worldwide for industrial and other purposes, and it accounts for 70% of the total production volume of pigments in the world.
In appearance, titanium dioxide is a crystalline white powder and has a bulk density of 48 lb/cu ft (0.77 g/cc).1